2015北京国际电子音乐节 | 约翰·乔宁 John M. Chowning
北京国际电子音乐节是中国目前最具影响力的大型国际性现代音乐专业活动之一。音乐节以不同风格和多种样式的电子音乐-计算机音乐系列演出为主体,以电子音乐的系列讲学为重要内容,并以学术性电子音乐和应用性电子音乐的平行进行为特点,兼顾了二者的平衡发展。
电子音乐; 计算机音乐; 中央音乐学院
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约翰·乔宁 John M. Chowning

约翰·乔宁 John M. Chowning

约翰·乔宁1934年出生于新泽西州的萨勒姆,服兵役后于威顿堡大学学习,并于巴黎学习作曲三年,师从纳迪亚·布朗热(Nadia Boulanger)。在麦克思·马休斯(Max Mathews)和贝尔电话实验室以及斯坦福大学的戴维·普尔(David Poole)的帮助下,他于1964年用该大学人工智能实验室的计算机系统创建了一个计算机音乐程序。同年,他开始研究并于1966年提出了第一个广义声音定位算法,该算法用四字数据格式执行。该年他还获得了斯坦福大学的作曲系博士学位,师从利兰·史密斯(Leland Smith)。次年,他发明了调频合成算法,授权于雅马哈公司,从而促成了电子乐器史上最成功的合成引擎。

他早期的三部作品,Turenas (1972),Stria(1977)和Phoné(1981)以独特的方式使用了他自己的定位/空间化和调频合成算法。计算机音乐杂志曾于2007年刊登了四篇关于作品Stria的文章,其中包括与之相关的分析、历史以及重构。在二十多年的听力问题困扰下,乔宁最终于2004年再度作曲。由此他开始致力于声乐作品,使用Max/MSP为女高音独唱和交互式计算机进行创作。

1988年,乔宁被选入美国艺术与科学学院。1990年,他被威顿堡大学授予音乐博士学位。1995年,法国文化部部长授予他文学与艺术荣誉证书。而后他先后于2002年和2010年荣膺由地中海大学和皇后大学授予的荣誉博士学位。他于斯坦福大学音乐学院执教计算机声音合成与制作,并成为计算机音乐与声学研究中心(CCRMA)的核心创始人,该研究中心在计算机音乐及相关领域处于领先地位。

 


John M. Chowning (U.S.A)

John M. Chowning was born in Salem, New Jersey in 1934. Following military service and studies at Wittenberg University, he studied composition in Paris for three years with Nadia Boulanger.  In 1964, with the help of Max Mathews then at Bell Telephone Laboratories and David Poole of Stanford, he set up a computer music program using the computer system of Stanford University’s Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. Beginning the same year he began the research leading to the first generalized sound localization algorithm implemented in a quad format in 1966.  He received the doctorate in composition from Stanford University in 1966, where he studied with Leland Smith.  The following year he discovered the frequency modulation synthesis (FM) algorithm, licensed to Yamaha, that led to the most successful synthesis engines in the history of electronic instruments.

His three early pieces, Turenas (1972), Stria (1977) and Phoné (1981), make use of his localization/spatialization and FM synthesis algorithms in uniquely different ways. The Computer Music Journal, 31(3), 2007 published four papers about Stria including analyses, its history and reconstruction. After more than twenty years of hearing problems, Chowning was finally able to compose again beginning in 2004, when he began work on Voices, for solo soprano and interactive computer using MaxMSP.

Chowning was elected to the American Academy of Arts and Sciences in 1988. He was awarded the Honorary Doctor of Music by Wittenberg University in 1990.  The French Ministre de la Culture awarded him the Diplôme d’Officier dans l’Ordre des Arts et Lettres in 1995 and he was given the Doctorat Honoris Causa in 2002 by the Université de la Méditerranée and by Queen’s University in 2010. He taught computer-sound synthesis and composition at Stanford University’s Department of Music and was the founding director of the Center for Computer Research in Music and Acoustics (CCRMA), one of the leading centers for computer music and related research.